السعادة والصفاء

السعادة والصفاء

سر الوصول إلى السعادة والصفاء والسلام النفسي ،أسراروأنوار القلوب التى صفت وأشرقت بعلوم الإلهام وأشرفت على سماوات القرب وفاضت بعلوم لدنية ومعارف علوية وأسرار سماوية



    What is the Islamic view of evolution?

    شاطر

    Admin
    Admin

    المساهمات : 1128
    تاريخ التسجيل : 29/04/2015
    العمر : 50

    What is the Islamic view of evolution?

    مُساهمة من طرف Admin في الجمعة ديسمبر 25, 2015 5:10 pm

    There is no single Islamic view on evolution. The Islamic sources are not specific; any of the following three could be said to be (to varying degrees) consistent with Islamic sources. Here are the three dominant strands that I have come across.

    1. Evolution is an incorrect theory
    Many Muslims believe that the theory of evolution is simply wrong. There are very strong proponents of this, such as Harun Yahya's The Evolution Deceit. They believe that the theory of Evolution is not critically analyzed the same way as other hypotheses (e.g. is evolution falsifiable in the Popperian sense) because it is foundational to secularism and atheism; effectively being a "blind spot" in western science. This is perhaps the most dominant view amongst general Muslims.

    2A. Evolution as a means of creation with a special exemption for mankind
    Some, such as Zaghloul El-Naggar (a micropalaeontologist by profession, who has day-to-day interaction with things like the fossil record) try for a middle ground. In his talk Organic Evolution from an Islamic Perspective, he posits that there's no fundamental disagreement with the hypothesis that God used evolution as a means of creation of all things in the Earth; in fact, the improbability of life evolving shows that there is a designer behind it. This is akin to the Intelligent Design view of evolution.

    However, he makes the point that the Islamic sources are clear on the special creation of Adam and Eve, and therefore, they can not have evolved. In other words, there is something unique about humanity; even though they are built in the same way as other creatures, God specifically created them. This is based on some clear verses in the Qur'an that man was created from clay. This is perhaps the belief of the majority of educated Muslims who have studied the topic.

    2B. Evolution as a means of creation with no special exemption for mankind
    This is a variant of the above theory that interprets the verses about man being created from clay being metaphorical (e.g. the elemental composition of man in terms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus is essentially the same as that of clay).

    Some of these scholars think that the verses in S Baqarah where the angels ask God about creating people who did mischief in the land as essentially indicating there may have been other intelligent beings on Earth that the angels observed. When the Quran speaks was originally in heaven, this was a metaphorical/spiritual component of man and it was somehow spiritually "injected" into a physical form. This hypothesis is most problematic This is -- to say the least -- a bit of a stretch. Of the three hypotheses, this is the one that is least consistent with the texts.
    Quranic Concept of Evolution
    Author: Atif Munawar Mir
    Mississauga, Canada
    SUMMARY
    According to the Holy Quran, the evolution of life is the result of divine will and divine guidance. The
    Holy Quran declares that the harmony and complexity of creation and could not have come of its own
    accord. In contrast, natural selection, the foundation of modern theory of evolution, credits accidental
    mutation for the survival of life and its complexity. But it fails to explain how the life was created and
    how the accidents can guide the life towards complexity.
    EVOLUTION OF LIFE: DIVINE WILL, NATURAL SELECTION
    The Holy Quran states that life resulted from evolution. However, this evolution was not blind or random.
    Rather, evolution was controlled by Divine hand. This Divine hand accounts for the beginning, diversity
    and complexity of life on Earth.
    However, modern biology, which is based on Darwin’s theory of evolution, attributes evolution to the
    principle of natural selection. According to this principle, humans, animals and plants, all evolved by
    natural accidents. The evolution of the human body was simply the outcome of automatic natural
    processes spread out over billions of years. In this immensely long process, humans evolved from onecelled
    organisms without any Divine help, guidance and purpose.
    Natural selection is the cornerstone of Darwin’s theory. Unlike the Holy Quran, the principle of natural
    selection did not acknowledge the idea that the universe is designed by an intelligent mind.
    Another difference between the principle of natural selection and the teachings of Islam is regarding the
    path of evolution. Natural selection states humans and apes have evolved from a common ancestor.
    Following this logic, biologists consider apes to be the most recent ancestor of humans. The Holy Quran,
    however, doesn’t put forward the idea of one common ancestor and thus doesn’t regard ape to be part of
    human evolutionary chain.
    Natural Selection
    Natural selection means that nature, not Divine Will, has guided the direction of evolution.
    Three Conditions of Natural Selection
    According to neo-Darwins, three conditions must be satisfied before natural selection can take place. The
    first condition is reproduction – that is there must be offspring. Secondly, the offspring should vary from
    the parents due to mutation, even if negligibly so. Finally, the accidental mutation in offspring should
    eventually lead to differences in the ability to survive and to further reproduce. 1

    1
    Charlesworth, Deborah and Brian. (2003) Evolution. Oxford University Press: 7
    Before going further, here is one essential clarification. Darwin had argued that the variation in off springs
    (second condition) reflects their adaptation impulse in changing environment. However, the modern
    biologists attribute the variation to mutations inside living organisms. 2
    For instance, Darwin argued that
    Giraffe’s long neck is the result of high trees in its habitat. Modern biologists attribute the long necks to
    the mutation in a small-necked animal.
    The following is a demonstration of the three conditions at work
    While a monkey cannot give birth to human offspring, it can have an offspring that is slightly more
    humanlike. Later on, this humanlike monkey will give birth to an offspring that will be more similar to
    humans than its parent and so on. Given enough time, there could be a series of many small steps linking
    a monkey ancestor to a human descendant.
    These three elements of natural selection provide a mechanism by which things can change their design
    without any outside help. For example, a real watchmaker plans out the watch he will make before he
    starts. On the other hand, natural selection brings about slight modifications in organisms with no
    particular end in sight. These many small changes over a long period of time can eventually turn a
    monkey into a human.
    Darwin’s History of Evolution
    The principle of natural selection was fully explained by Charles Darwin in his famous book, On the
    Origin of Species. It was published in 1859 and caused a wave of controversy. Darwin based the book on
    the discoveries he made while traveling in South America where he collected many specimens of plants,
    animals, rocks and fossils. He discovered fossils of extinct animals that resembled certain surviving
    species. Also, he saw cases where resemblance existed among existing species. These findings forced him
    to think about these questions:
    Why do animals become extinct?
    Why is there resemblance among various species, surviving or extinct?
    In pre-Darwin times, the concept of evolution was prominent, however, it was uncertain as to how the
    process of evolution occurred. Darwin introduced the idea of natural selection to explain the process of
    evolution.
    His findings, which are more or less accepted in the world of biology, were that evolution has been
    occurring since the beginning of time and is still in process today. Natural selection concludes that
    humans are descendants of bony fish, which first appeared in the seas 400 million years ago. Using their
    bony fins, these fish made their way out of the sea and slowly adapted to survive on land. This bony fish
    was the ancestor of all vertebrates (backbone) amphibians, reptiles and birds that lived on earth 370
    millions years ago. When some reptiles evolved into birds the front two legs slowly became wings. Other
    reptiles evolved into mammals with four legs. In humans, front legs evolved into arms. In whales, limbs
    have all but disappeared.

    2
    Hoyle, Fred. (1983) The Intelligent Universe, Holt, Rinehard and Winston: 32
    Monkey and apes appeared 35 millions years ago and lived in trees. According to natural selection, for
    some uncertain reason, a specific group of ape was eventually banished from the forest some five million
    years ago. Eventually, this exiled ape learned to walk upright and slowly became human.
    Islam and Natural Selection
    One of the attributes of God, according to the Holy Quran, is that He creates in stages. Humans have also
    been created in stages. It provides no details of those stages, but does offer principles that tend to point
    toward four major stages in the evolution of humans.3
    In the first stage, humans were lifeless material. In
    the second stage, humans were physically humans but mentally they were still on the level of animals.
    They lacked language, articulation and logic. In the third stage, humans developed thinking skills and in
    the final stage, humans learned to exist as a society. So the Holy Quran does talk about human evolution,
    from matter into mind, in stages. This evolution from one stage to another, however, occurred under
    Divine guidance.
    The Holy Quran disagrees with the blind aspect of natural selection as well as its path, which places
    humans and apes in the same evolutionary chain. The enormous gap between humans and animals in
    mental potential and social skills raises the issue of the missing link, which is discussed later on.
    The Quranic scripture repeatedly declares that at every step of creation intentional choices were made.
    Choices were not made by the blind operator of natural selection, but by God, the All-seeing, the Allknowing.
    4
    . But He hasn’t simply created nature but he has also actively been involved in the selection of
    species, which ones go extinct and which ones survive. The creation and sustenance of all species depends
    on the Will of God.
    According to natural selection, however, humans are merely the outcome of trillions of evolutionary
    accidents created by random events in the evolution process. They have no specific purpose in the
    universe. Their existence is coincidental.
    This is a striking contrast to Quranic position that states that it was humanity that is the ultimate purpose
    of Creation.
    Implications and Analysis of Natural Selection
    Complexity: Mutative Changes, Divine Control
    One of the key elements of natural selection is that offspring sometimes vary from their parents. For
    instance, a yellow butterfly may have a black offspring. This kind of variation and mutation, though rare,
    tends to occur in all species. Over a long period of time, the cumulative effect of such mutations leads to
    an entirely new specie.
    This theory of mutative change has given rise to the idea that mutation plays an important role to slowly
    build, improve and evolve all living organisms into complicated yet harmonious biological entities.
    The Holy Quran disagrees that natural selection by itself brings about evolution. Allah states in the Holy
    Quran that Divine Will guides evolution, not by accident. If nature had guided evolution, life was more

    3
    Ahmed, Hazrat Mirza Bashirrudin Ahmed (Khalifa Sani (PBUH). (1954) Sairay Rohani: First Part. Alshirkatul Islamia Ltd.
    18-23
    4
    The Holy Quran: Chapter 56, Verses 58-74
    likely to have degenerated than evolved. Haphazard mutation could have led to countless number of nonlife
    outcomes.
    According to natural selection, all living things including humans have evolved out of one single cell.
    That one single cell eventually has evolved into human body with trillions of specialized cells that direct
    different functions of human body. What are the odds that one complex cell evolved into trillions of
    highly complicated specialized cells by chance? The chances are less than unlikely.
    The journey, from an incredibly complex single cell to trillions of unfathomable specialized cells, likely
    needs a guide, a designer. Without the guide, the cells were more likely to disorganize themselves.
    Scientists agree that the stage-by-stage progress of a single cell into highly specialized cells was more
    likely to be stalled or reversed if the journey had lacked a pre-designed map.
    Allah has created the heavens and the earth in stages as he declares in the Holy Quran. 5
    It is Allah that
    creates, develops and sustains life, and ensures harmony and diversity in all things, living and non-living.
    All this cannot be realized through random choices of adaptation.
    Evolution as presented by the Holy Quran states that life advanced step by step from dust, water, clay and
    also from fermenting blackish mud, which subsequently turned into dry, ringing clay. 6
    One of the interesting features of natural selection is that accidental mutations generally lead to wonderful
    design. With the help of accidental mutations, a monkey without the power of logic or speech ends up as a
    human equipped with the capabilities of language and reasoning. Seemingly, natural selection always
    moves in the direction of progress. According to some critics of natural selection, calling such a progress
    accidental is like hoping that a monkey typing randomly on a keyboard would eventually produce a
    Shakespearean play.
    Equally astonishing is the fact that when survival of specie was at stake, more than often, there was a
    mutation in that specie that ensured its survival. Take the example of green butterflies, which uses green
    trees as camouflage. However, due to pollution caused by nearby coal factories, the tree leaves generally
    became darker. As a result, green butterflies found it hard to hide from its prey. However, it does
    accidentally give birth to black offspring, which allows it to use dark trees as camouflage. Eventually,
    green butterflies, no longer able to hide from its prey, disappears while the black off springs increases in
    numbers. That is how an accidental mutation helped this specie to change and thus survive.
    Natural selection presupposes millions of such accidental mutations in explaining improved designs and
    survival of species. What needs to be pondered here is the fact that trillions of such accidental/rare
    mutations occurred in such a timely fashion to prevent extinction of many species throughout the course
    of evolutionary history?
    If one mutation, among trillions, had occurred differently, then humans would not exist. Mammals might
    still have been ruling the earth. One wrong turn and there wouldn’t have been any life at all. However,
    according to natural selection, life has defied such dangers and has grown diverse and complex in a
    remarkable fashion.

    5 Holy Quran: Chapter 67, Verses 2-4
    6
    Ahmad, Hazrat Mirza Tahir (Khalifa Rabia (PBUH)). (1998). Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge and Truth. Islam
    International Publications Ltd. 344 (Quotation based on Chapter 15, Verses 27, 29 & 34)
    Scientists explain this as nothing but a series of co incidents driven by mutations. The occurrence of such
    coincidents is not likely, one scientist by the name of Fred Hoyle argues. He equates such occurrence of
    complexity through random choices with the assemblage of a 747 by a tornado whirling through a
    junkyard.
    7
    Natural selection, if operated on its own, would have caused haphazard mutative changes. However, not
    only have mutations been timely, but the nature of the mutations have been essential for survival at that
    particular time. One timely mutation may be explained by coincidence but continuous and timely
    occurrence of mutations over million of years demands supervision of evolution. Otherwise, the
    extinction or deterioration of species would have been a more likely possibility.
    According to the Holy Quran, accidents play no role in the survival of species. All species, including
    humans, are well protected from a host of impending dangers, constantly surrounding them, threatening
    extinction at every moment of their lives…it is a well chalked out, well-preserved and well-implemented
    protective design which is in operation throughout the history of life. 8
    Mutations do occur but they do not drive evolutionary processes. If mutations had been the force behind
    evolution, why is it that polar bears in the arctic are all white? Not even a single fossil has been found in
    the arctic, which might indicate that polar bears, at some point in time, accidentally gave birth to a yellow,
    blue or black colored polar bear. Following the logic of Darwin’s theory, the polar bears in the arctic
    should also come in all shapes and sizes. There should be tiny polar bears, giant polar bears,
    heavyweights, and middleweights. But no such traces of variant bears are discovered in the arctic where
    the atmosphere is conducive to preserving fossils. 9
    Nature is full of examples that indicate that there is more to evolution than mutation can explain. For
    example, how does mutation logically explain as to why two separate electric fish species, the South
    American and African, have developed the same electrical features while living in two different
    geographical locations? One explanation is because the Creator of both fishes is the same. The second
    explanation offered by a proponent of natural selection, Richard Dwarkins, is that fascinatingly both
    fishes have hit upon exactly the same solution (to different problems they faced).10
    Visualizing how this highly sophisticated electrical device was constructed in the sea, without purpose,
    without design, and without knowledge of how electricity works, one is left with the scenario that once in
    the remote past, an ordinary fish may have been surprised with the bizarre chance appearance of some
    porthole (electrical appendage) in its belly. 11
    Beginning of life: Chance, Design
    How did life begin on Earth? According to natural selection, certain inorganic materials unintentionally
    combined to form organic materials (such as protein), which, through more accidents, evolved into DNA
    and RNA. Further chemical accidents eventually produced life. In this regard, there are two challenges
    that Natural selection faces. One how organic material resulted from inorganic materials in uncontrolled
    conditions? Secondly, how did remarkably complex bricks of life, DNA and RNA, evolve out of organic
    material?


      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت نوفمبر 18, 2017 3:35 pm